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Introduction

HTML5 includes the Drag and Drop API , which gives us the ability to natively drag, drop, and transfer data to HTML elements. Up until now, JavaScript libraries have commonly been used to achieve something similar, such as jQuery UI’s Draggable and Droppable plugins or Dojo.dnd. What libraries such as jQuery UI or Dojo can’t do, however, is interact with other windows, frames, and applications (to and from the file system) or have a rich drag data store.

Marketers like to brand all things HTML5 as shiny and disappointingly then, the HTML5 Drag and Drop model has roots in . Ian Hickson, the HTML5 specification editor, reverse engineered the Drag and Drop API from Internet Explorer. The best thing it had going for it was the fact that it was already working in IE, and to some extent Safari and Firefox had implemented it. It may not be the most elegantly designed part of HTML5, but the paths had already been paved .

Before you get too excited, a word of caution: the current cross-browser landscape isn’t pretty. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Internet Explorer all implement some form of Drag and Drop, but violate the spec in many different ways. Certain parts of the API, like the attribute, are only implemented in Opera. Cross-browser drag and drop is going to be tricky (though not impossible) until all the browsers work through their implementation bugs.

Drag and drop is supported now in Opera 12 and to some extent in current versions of Chrome, Safari, Firefox and will be in IE10. With time, we hope all browsers will move towards compatible implementations , or that the spec will be changed to embroidered hitop sneakers Nude amp; Neutrals Leather Crown Sneakernews For Sale Store For Sale 8o2cd
. As always, please remember to file bugs with the browser vendors!

The Drag and Drop API

Without further ado, let’s dive into the main Drag and Drop API features, and see what you can do with them.

The attribute

The quickest way to get started with drag and drop is to add to an element.

The attribute indicates to the browser that an element is eligible for dragging with three possible values: , , and . For example, in the following list of items, the first is draggable, the second isn’t, and the third may or may not be depending on the user agent’s default behavior.

Keep in mind that text selections are always draggable by default, as are images and links. You can set their attributes to false to prevent this, which may not be very nice for your users.

Here’s the markup for the previous example:

The attribute

The attribute allows you to indicate in markup draggable elements may be dropped — and to some extent what to do with them they are dropped.

The attribute takes a list of space-separated items with the following possible values: , , , , and .

The , , and values, which correspond mostly to , indicate the kind of operation that is allowed as the result of a drop.

The and values allow the author to restrict the type of data that can be dropped by adding a data type — it has to be at least one letter long, and can’t contain spaces:

This example will put data from content that gets dragged in, or from PNG images dragged from the file system or otherwise obtained via the File API, into the drag data store.

Even with a element declared, in order to accept a drop the drop target needs to listen for the event.

The drag data store

What makes HTML5 Drag and Drop more interesting than a run-of-the-mill JavaScript drag and drop library is the concept of the At the core of every drag and drop operation lies a bucket of information that can be passed around. The data store consists of a data store item list, listing each piece of dragged data. These drag items all have a kind (either or ), a type (a string, usually given as a MIME type), the actual data (a unicode or binary string), and some other information that can be used by the browser to give UI feedback.

The object of a drag event is how we get access to read from, write to, and clear the data in this data store. Each object is also linked to a object (accessible via the getter), which contains one or more objects (accessible via the index of the object).

Drag and drop events

Drag and drop introduces seven new events that HTML elements can listen for, all of which bubble. With the exception of and , they are all cancellable.

Drag and drop events are basically mouse events with a data store. Note that you can both read and write to the data store during a event, but it is read-only during .

For items that are dragged, the events are:

For any element that may receive a drop, the events are:

These are fairly intuitive, but let’s examine the event sequence exhibited during a Drag and Drop sequence, to help us understand exactly how it works.

The Drag and Drop event sequence

When the user starts dragging something, the event fires on the source element, which can be an element with set on it, or any elements that are draggable by default, such as links, images, text selections, etc. The event’s handler can now add data to the data store, to be dropped later on. Once the event has fired, a series of events fire every few hundred milliseconds, or every time the mouse moves. They are:

This keeps happening until the mouse passes over a new element. At this point, we see a change: then fires immediately after the last event. If is cancelled, then this new element becomes the current target, fires on the previous target to indicate that it is no longer the target, and the event will fire on the new target. If is not cancelled, then the becomes the current target. If the event is cancelled as well, then the current target element will be allowed to receive the event so the user can now drop the payload being dragged. If not, then dropping will be prevented, as per the spec.

To be compatible with other browsers, we’ve changed our implementation to now allow the element to become the current target even if is not cancelled. IE still (correctly, per spec) requires this.

So to summarise, the usual repeated event sequence is:

When the user drops what they were dragging, if dropping was allowed in the last repeated sequence, then fires at the current target. The event is allowed to see all of the data that was dropped — the only other event that can do so is the event that created it. If it is not cancelled, then the browser will be allowed to do whatever it would normally do in that case (for example when dropping a file, if you don’t cancel the event the browser should try to open the file). After the drag has ended, it fires a event at the source element (even if the drop was not allowed).

This series of events targeted at both the source and target elements allows drags to start in one document and end in another, with both documents being able to monitor the state of the drag. If the drag starts outside the window, or passes from inside it to outside it, then only the events that should be targeted at the relevant document will fire, and the others are assumed to have fired and been allowed or cancelled as needed. If multiple documents are involved, then each receives the relevant events from the sequence.

The and properties

: this determines which of the three “effects” the user will be allowed to choose from when dropping. Possible values are , , , , , , and . The “compound” values like mean copy move.

: determines which “effect” will be used when the user drops (or in the case of the and events, which one was already used when the user dropped). This will be either the user’s choice (if they pressed a modifier key), or the default (depending on what type of element/selection is being dragged), or none (if the user selected a type of drop effect that was not allowed, or dropped somewhere where dropping was not allowed, in which case the event will not fire). Possible values are , , or .

The script events can also write to this property, to override the user’s choice. If the final (the last one seen in a event) is not one that is compatible with , the drop will not be allowed ( event will not fire, event sees as the ).

So what’s the point of all this? The idea is to allow drag and drop scripts to offer functionality like an OS file manager. You know, drag a file from one folder into another. Does it:

The user can choose by pressing modifier keys (they are different on different OSes, but , and all do something on Windows). With drag and drop, the idea is that the script looks at the property, and offers relevant functionality. For example, if I offer a remote file manager UI using drag and drop, I can allow the user to press keys to select what should happen, and my script could see what they chose and act accordingly.

Some simple examples

Now we’ve explored all the theory, let’s put it into practice and look at some working examples.

To see the below examples in action, have a look at our Drag and Drop demo .

A simple drag source

The simplest example using the normal events just uses a simple source element (you’ll need to use a link if you want it to work in IE as well) with the attribute.

The draggable should listen for the event, and put some data into the data store when it is fired. It can also set , to state whether the user will be allowed to select any of , or using modifier keys. These will be used by the operating system if that’s where the drag ends up, or be passed to the drop handler, if the user chooses a permitted effect that is compatible with the drop target’s property.

Any potential drop target should then listen for and cancel the and events, and then also listen for the all-important event, and in most cases cancel that too. Working with the dropped data is done in the event handler.

Text selections

Dragging text selections is easier to handle. The event fires at the parent element, but it does not need a handler to create data. The selected text is added as data. Therefore if we just want to deal with text selections, we can simply remove the event handler from the above example, and just assume there is some text that the user can select and start dragging.

Microdata

Any microdata items attached to a dragged element, or intersected by a dragged selection, will be included as a JSON string with the mimetype . When parsed, this is represented as a series of objects and arrays, such as:

Currently only Opera supports this.

Files

When files are dropped from the system into a web document (or otherwise obtained via the File API), they appear in the dropped data’s collection. Each entry in the collection is a File object, as specified in the File API spec . The contents can then be read using a object.

Security

Nothing in the HTML5 specification currently mentions the security implications of drag and drop operations. At Opera, we’ve taken a few measures to make things safer for our users.

Uploads

In Opera’s implementation, if a file from the file system is dragged into a page the drop won’t happen unless the user explicitly allows it. Figure 1, taken from fontdragr.com shows an example of this:

Exposing event origin

In addition to UI considerations, we’ve proposed (and implemented) the following extensions to :

is a read-only property that returns the protocol, domain and optional port of the origin where the drag started. If the drag was not started on an origin (such as a dragged file from the desktop), or on a URL that is not a scheme/host/port tuple, the value should be the string value .

defines an origin match for sites which may receive the dropped data. If this method is not called, then all sites and applications may be considered dropzones.

Just like , takes one of the three arguments: (matches all origins), (matches current origin), or an absolute URL.

The must match permitted target origins on the data store, otherwise the , , and events are never fired.

is intended to be used by a site (we can call it the source site) that is putting something sensitive inside the data store, and wants to ensure it will not be leaked to untrusted sites. is intended to be used by a site that will activate a sensitive operation when data is dropped, and wants to ensure that only trusted sites started the drag. That is, it is intended for use by the target site.

To demonstrate this, we’ve created a sample security page . The top-level window includes the following bit of code:

This ensures that the drop can only happen on a document with http://people.opera.com as its origin.

The embedded includes this:

Before we operate on the data, we check the origin of the drop and make sure we trust it.

Both and may be used, or a site may just use one. It all depends on the use case, and what needs to be protected — the data, the action, or both.

Summary

This concludes our tour of HTML5 Drag and Drop. Pat yourself on the back if you’ve made it this far, you deserve it. Please let us know what you think in the comments, and help us improve things by submitting bugs .

Resources and Links

Mike Taylor

Published onin Articles . Edit this article on GitHub .

Copyright © 2006—2018 Opera Software ASA. Somerightsreserved. Contribute!

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British World English convert

Pronunciation /kənˈvəːt/

1 with object Change the form, character, or function of something.

change , turn, transform, metamorphose, transfigure, transmute, translate
adapt , turn, rework, recast, reshape, refashion, remodel, remould
change into , be able to be changed into, adapt to
change , turn
adapt , turn, rebuild, reconstruct, redevelop, remake, make over, refashion, redesign, restyle, revamp

2 no object Change one's religious faith or other belief.

proselytize , evangelize, bring to god, redeem, save, reform, re-educate, cause someone to change their beliefs, cause someone to change their mind, make someone see the light

3 with object Score from (a penalty kick, pass, or other opportunity) in a sport or game.

Pronunciation /ˈkɒnvəːt/

A person who has been persuaded to change their religious faith or other belief.

proselyte , neophyte, new believer

Phrases

convert something to one's own use

Wrongfully make use of another's property.

Origin

Middle English (in the sense ‘turn round, send in a different direction’): from Old French convertir, based on Latin convertere ‘turn about’, from con- ‘altogether’ + vertere ‘turn’.

Pronunciation

convert

Verb /kənˈvəːt/

convert

Noun /ˈkɒnvəːt/
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In the migration package of “ SAP Hybris Marketing Cloud – file based data load ” you are provided with attached CSV sample files. With the help of these CSV files you can see, which fields are imported.

In a first test, we used the sample file for contacts and copied it to our SFTP server. The import worked properly.

In a second test, we created our own CSV file for contacts. As our contact data samples had no company assigned we have removed the columns SAPERPConsumerAccountId , CompanyId and CustomerName . This time the iFlow raised an error stating that XSD schema is incompatible with CSV payload.

The reason for the error: XML transformation expects all columns of the mapping.

Recommendation :

Recommendation

Open the sample CSV file for the corresponding object to understand, which columns/fields are required within the import file. Yo can find the sample CSV files at tab Documents of the iFlow.

The mapping is also explained in the attached documents Set-Up Guide and Mapping details.

In further tests, we imported files with a higher data volume – 100000 data sets in one file and almost 1 million data sets. In customer projects, data from many different external systems are imported to the SAP Hybris Marketing system. In our test scenario, we do not have such an external system, so we have created our own sample data for the import with our own tool.

With the generated sample data, some issues occurred regarding the XSD validation within HCI. For example, a value of a field was too long, see figure below.

Another issue was the wrong format of the field Timestamp . In such a case, you must open the CSV file on the SFTP server and correct the data inconsistencies. The best way is to check the consistency of your data in the CSV import file before you copy the file to the SFTP server.

before

Check the document Mapping details for understanding the required format of the fields.

Additionally the rules with which the XML document must comply to be considered as “valid”, are set in the XSD file. If you are not clear about the length or format of field values, you can find the rules in the iFlow under Resources .

As already mentioned, the content of the CSV import file must comply with some conditions to pass the included validation. For the interaction CSV file, you must also ensure the validity of the structure within the CSV.

In our test case, we have imported the following CSV file for interactions:

As a result, the Import Monitor app displays the following error:

The reason for this error:

At HCI one row within the CSV file is mapped to a contact and to an interaction. This means every row in the CSV file has a contact and an interaction, eventually during the import to the SAP Hybris Marketing system, a contact and an interaction is imported for each row in the CSV file.

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